Karl Deisseroth, M.D., Ph.D., D.H. Chen Professor of Bioengineering, Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University, Howard Hughes Medical Investigator
Xiaoliang Sunney Xie, Ph.D., Mallinckrodt Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Biology at Harvard University, Director of BIOPIC at Peking University
Alexander Varshavsky, Ph.D., Howard and Gwen Laurie Smits Professor of Cell Biology at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech)
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Brian J Druker, M.D. Director of the OHSU Knight Cancer Institute, Associate Dean for Oncology of the OHSU School of Medicine, JELD-WEN Chair of Leukemia Research at Oregon Health & Science University, and Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
Peter Nowell, M.D., Gaylord P. and Mary Louise Harnwell Emeritus Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.
Janet Davison Rowley, M.D., (1925-2013) was Professor of Medicine, Blum-Riese Distinguished Service Professor, University of Chicago.
James E. Darnell Jr., M.D., Vincent Astor Professor Emeritus, Head of the Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology The Rockefeller University.
Robert G. Roeder, Ph.D., Arnold O. and Mabel S. Beckman Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Head of the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology The Rockefeller University.
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Elaine Fuchs, Ph.D. Rebecca C. Lancefield Professor head of the Laboratory of Mammalian Cell Biology and Development, Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator at The Rockefeller University in New York City
James A. Thomson, V.M.D., Ph.D., director of regenerative biology at the Morgridge Institute for Research in Madison, Wis. and professor at the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health and the Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology Department at the University of California, Santa Barbara.
Shinya Yamanaka, M.D., Ph.D., director and professor of the Center for iPS Cell Research and Applications at Kyoto University in Japan and senior investigator at the Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease in San Francisco.
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David Botstein, PhD, director and Anthony B. Evnin Professor of Genomics, Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, is known for proposing the concept of building a complete genetic map of the human being and identifying mapping techniques for what would eventually become the Human Genome Project.
Francis S. Collins, MD, PhD, director of the National Institutes of Health, notably developed a technique for identifying particular disease-related genes known as positional cloning, which led to the discovery of the gene that causes cystic fibrosis. Dr. Collins also provided oversight to the Human Genome Project.
Eric S. Lander, PhD, president and director of the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, was one of the creators of the first practical plan to make and use a comprehensive genetic map of the human genome. He also elucidated how one could develop maps of complex multiple-gene diseases such as diabetes and heart disease.
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Ralph Steinman, MD, a 2011 Nobel Laureate, was the Henry G. Kunkel Professor in Rockefeller University's Laboratory of Cellular Physiology and Immunology at the time of his Albany Prize honor. He is world-renowned for his discovery and subsequent studies of the dendritic cell, the immune system's central regulator.
Charles Dinarello, MD, professor of Medicine at the University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, is considered a founding father of cytokine biology, and his studies have focused on the immune system's inflammatory reactions.
Bruce Beutler, MD, a 2011 Nobel Laureate, was a professor and chairman of the Department of Genetics at Scripps Research Institute at the time of his Albany Prize honor. He is famous for his research on several immune system proteins involved in sensing bacteria and viruses, and his subsequent development of therapies for patients.
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Elizabeth Blackburn, PhD, a 2009 Nobel Laureate, was the Morris Herzstein Professor of Biology and Physiology at the University of California, San Francisco at the time of her Albany Prize honor. She is world-renowned for her groundbreaking discovery of the enzyme telomerasen, which plays a significant role in cellular aging and may help to unravel the mysteries of a variety of diseases from cancer to chronic stress disorders.
Joan Steitz, PhD, the Sterling Professor of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry at Yale University, is best known for discovering and defining the function of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snrnps) in pre-messenger RNA. Many scientists believe that Dr. Steitz's research may ultimately lead to breakthroughs in treating autoimmune diseases including lupus.
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Robert J. Lefkowitz, MD, James B. Duke Professor of Medicine and Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator at Duke University Medical Center, made a remarkable contribution when he and his colleagues cloned the gene first for the b-adrenergic receptor, and then for a total of 8 adrenergic receptors. This led to the discovery that all G protein-coupled receptors have a similar molecular structure.
Solomon H. Snyder, MD, Distinguished Service Professor in the Department of Neuroscience at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, unraveled the mystery behind receptors that controlled pain and pleasure in the brain. He was the first to identify receptors in the brain that are the targets of opiates. His findings led to the development of drugs to treat schizophrenia, which work by blocking the neurotransmitter receptor for dopamine.
Ronald M. Evans, PhD, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator at The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, successfully cloned the first nuclear hormone receptor, the human glucocorticoid receptor. This action led to the finding of a superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors, all with similar molecular and genetic structures. His nuclear hormone receptors are among the most widely investigated group of pharmaceutical targets in the world.
Seymour Benzer, PhD (1912–2007), former James Griffin Boswell Professor of Neuroscience, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology. A neuro-scientist, molecular biologist and physicist who uncovered genetic links to behavior in fruit flies that serve as the foundation for the study and treatment of human neurological diseases, Benzer was heralded by the scientific community as the “father of neurogenetics.” Benzer’s work opened the field to exploration of models for specific neurodegenerative diseases of the human brain such as Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s chorea, Parkinson’s, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s disease).
Robert S. Langer, MD, institute professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and chemical engineer by trade, revolutionized the field of drug delivery systems with his groundbreaking research with polymers—or plastics. Dr. Langer's work has spawned advances in cancer treatment, given birth to an entirely new field of biotechnology known as tissue engineering, fueled the development of cardiac stents that virtually have eliminated the risk of restenosis and have led to the development of artificial skin which is used in the treatment of burn patients.
Herbert W. Boyer, PhD, professor emeritus at the University of California at San Francisco and co-founder of one of the world's first biotechnology companies, Genentech, Inc., was successful in identifying restriction enzymes—proteins that could slice DNA strands at specific sites.
Stanley N. Cohen, MD, an endowed professor at Stanford University and Nobel Laureate, developed a method to isolate and reproduce multiple copies of individual plasmids—small segments of DNA that endow bacteria with the ability to fight against antibiotics.
Michael S. Brown, MD, distinguished chair at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas and Nobel Laureate, is best known for his research with co-recipient Dr. Goldstein. The pair elucidated the cause of familial hyper-cholesterolemia, and discovered the low density lipoprotein receptor. Their breakthrough discoveries have formed a basis for the current widespread use of cholesterol-lowering statin drugs.
Joseph L. Goldstein, MD, distinguished chair at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas and Nobel Laureate, has shared in many successful studies as a result of his collaboration with co-recipient Dr. Brown.
Anthony S. Fauci, MD, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) of the National Institutes of Health, is one of the world’s leading clinicians and researchers on the pathogenesis and treatment of immune-mediated diseases, including AIDS. His efforts include spearheading the drive for vaccines to prevent HIV, anthrax, and the Ebola virus.
Arnold J. Levine, PhD, president of Rockefeller University and the Robert and Harriet Heilbrunn Professor of Cancer Biology, co-discovered the p53 protein, part of a fundamental pathway in human cell growth, described as perhaps the most important tumor suppressor gene in human cancer. His research has enabled scientists to develop strategies for diagnosis, prevention, and cure for cancers resulting from p53 deficiencies.