2004 winner BoyerHerbert W. Boyer, PhD, professor emeritus at the University of California at San Francisco and co-founder of one of the world’s first biotechnology companies, Genentech, Inc., was successful in identifying restriction enzymes—proteins that could slice DNA strands at specific sites.


2004 winner CohenStanley N. Cohen, MD, an endowed professor at Stanford University and Nobel Laureate, developed a method to isolate and reproduce multiple copies of individual plasmids—small segments of DNA that endow bacteria with the ability to fight against antibiotics.