Please select one of Albany Medical Center's approved scopes of service for more information. You can also download and print the Nursing Units and Scopes of Services PDF document.
|Ambulatory Surgery Unit (HOSPITAL) - BB|
|Apheresis - M2|
|Cardiac Catherization Lab|
|Cardio Pulmonary Services (CPS) - D2N|
|Center for Cancer & Blood Disorders - D4E|
|Coronary Care Unit (CCU) - D2E|
|Digestive Disease Center|
|Electrophysiology (EP) Lab|
|Epilepsy Monitoring Unit|
|General Orthopedics - C5|
|General Surgery – Short Stay - C2|
|General Surgery/Trauma - B3|
|Infectious Disease and Secure Unit|
|Labor & Delivery/ High Risk Antepartum/ Obstetrical/Gynecology/Newborn Unit - E6, D6E, D6N|
|Medical Cardiology - D4N|
|Medical/Observation Unit - E4|
|Medical/Surgical Float Pool|
|Medicine/Surgical Unit - E3|
|Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) - B4|
|Neuroscience General - M5|
|Neuroscience Unit - D5E|
|Orthopedics Unit (Elective) - B3W|
|Pediatrics - C7|
|Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU)|
|Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - E8|
|Post-Cardiothoracic Surgical Unit - C8|
|Pre and Post-Operative Care Units (PACU) (POCU) - BB|
|Psychiatry Unit - E2|
|Pulmonary, Renal and General Medical Unit - M4|
|Renal-Pulmonary Unit - E5|
|Renal/Pancreas Transplant Unit - C3E|
|Vascular Surgery - D5N|
|Vascular Intensive Care Unit|
Ambulatory Surgery Unit (HOSPITAL) - BB
The Ambulatory Surgery Unit is an outpatient surgical unit designed to provide maximum visibility of patients. It consists of five post-op stations, and one central nursing station. The average case load is 15 - 20 patients per day.
The Ambulatory Surgery Unit is a Phase II recovery area caring for all patients returning to home the day of surgery. The age group served in this area includes young adults 15 years old through geriatrics.
Apheresis - M2
The Apheresis unit consists of 9 beds, three of which are private rooms, and 6 treatment chairs. Services provided by the Apheresis unit include acute and chronic apheresis procedures, outpatient therapeutic phlebotomies/manual exchange transfusion, outpatient blood transfusions, immunoglobulin replacement, antibiotic infusion, monoclonal B infusion, research drug infusion, chemotherapy administration, and hydration. We serve both the pediatric and adult patient population.
Cardiac Catherization Lab
The Cardiac Catherization laboratory consists of three (3) laboratories and one shared holding area. The Cardiac Catheterization laboratories perform diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for the adult and pediatric patients under the supervision of qualified Medical, Nursing, Technical, and other health care personnel.
Cardio Pulmonary Services (CPS) - D2N
The Cardio-Pulmonary Surgical Unit (CPS) at Albany Medical Center is a 10-bed intensive care unit. The patient population is adult/older adult (age 18 and older). Most patients are between 40-90 years old. The unit is designed to provide post-operative cardiac, thoracic and vascular surgery adult patients with continuous comprehensive specialized medical and nursing care.
CPS is designed to provide immediate post-operative care to patients recovering from major cardiac surgery, as well as thoracic and vascular surgery. The CPS patients’ needs encompass comprehensive physical assessment, monitoring and treatment of laboratory values, ventilator management, hemodynamic monitoring (including arterial and PA catheters), titration of vasoactive and inotropic drug infusions, interpretation and treatment of cardiac rhythms, management of external pacemakers, continuous renal replacement therapy, therapeutic hypothermia, intra-aortic balloon pumps, and ventricular assist devices.
Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders - D4E
The Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders is a 27 bed unit: it consists of 9 semi-private and 9 private rooms. The population of this unit is from young adult (18 years) to geriatric (100 years). Care is provided as inpatient care. Observation patients are also accommodated on the unit.
rimary diagnoses of the unit include various cancer diagnoses. These include, but not limited to, breast, lung, bladder, gastric and head and neck. Other diagnosis includes; leukemia, lymphoma, sickle cell, mitochondrial disease and various blood disorders. Gyn and Oncology patients are also cared for post-operatively. The unit also provides care to general medicine and surgical patients. The population consists of both acute and chronically ill patients.
Treatments modalities include, but are not limited to IV therapy, antibiotic therapy, blood and blood products transfusion. Chemotherapy, monoclonal antibodies and radiation therapy is also provided. Patients’ needs encompass bone marrow biopsy, sterile dressings, tube feeding, numerous drains and occasionally some orthopedic devices such as traction and CPM (continuous passive motion) machines.
Coronary Care Unit (CCU) - D2E
The CCU is an (17) bed critical care unit. The unit consists of (11) acute beds and six “swing beds” with each room having invasive monitoring capabilities.
The patient population consists of adult patients with an approximate age group sixteen and older experiencing actual or potential life threatening cardiac dysfunction. One of the services provided by credentialed RPN’s in this unit is continuous EKG monitoring for potential life-threatening dysrhythmias and the implementation of emergency measures in the absence of a physician according to the American Heart Association’s Advanced Cardiac Life Support (AHA-ACLS) Guidelines.
The plan of care is based on standards of care, clinical pathways and practice guidelines as identified by AMC Practice Council, protocols and standards as established by the American Association of Critical Care Nurses (AACN). The RPN coordinates the care of these patients in collaboration with but not limited to: physicians, a Clinical Nurse Specialist, social worker, case managers, pastoral care, dieticians, physical, recreational and occupational therapists.
Adult In-Patient Hemodialysis Unit - M3
Dialysis Services at Albany Medical Center Hospital has two distinct parts; Pediatric Dialysis and In-Patient Hemodialysis. The Adult In-Patient Hemodialysis Unit has nine stations.
The purpose of the Acute Adult and Pediatric Dialysis Service is:
Adult In-Patient Hemodialysis Unit - M3
Pediatric Dialysis Unit - M3
Dialysis Services at Albany Medical Center Hospital has two distinct parts; Pediatric Dialysis and In-Patient Hemodialysis. The Pediatric Dialysis Unit is located has five hemodialysis patient stations including an isolation room. The population consists of male/female neonate to eighteen year old with acute and chronic renal failure.
The purpose of the Acute and Pediatric Dialysis Service is:
Digestive Disease Center
The Digestive Disease Center (DDC) is composed of (6) procedure rooms, (5) pre-procedural bays, (6) acute recovery bays, and (6) step-down recovery bays. Within (2) of the procedure rooms, we have the capability for fluoroscopy and negative pressure accommodation.
The DDC provides care for all patients requiring services from newborn to geriatric ages. The only exception to this support would be patients requiring critical care, i.e. ICU pts. Those patients’ procedures would be done at the bedside or in the Operating Room. Typical patient populations that require endoscopic support are limited to the specialties of Adult & Pediatric Gastroenterology, General Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine, General & Bariatric Surgery, and Cardiology.
The most common conditions that are cared for in the Endoscopy Unit are:
Procedures performed in the DDC include: EGD, Colonoscopy, ERCP, EUS, TEE, Bronchoscopy, Feeding Tube placement/ Revision.
Electrophysiology (EP) Lab
The Cardiac EP Laboratory consists of (2) laboratories and one shared holding area. Adult and pediatric patients of all ages are cared for. The major conditions/most frequent diagnoses treated include:
Typical services, treatments, procedures, and activities performed are EP studies, RF Ablation, pacemaker, defibrillator/loop recorder, implants, cardioversions and endomyocardial biopsies.
The ED is a level 1 Trauma Center and serves as a regional referral center for a wide variety of patients requiring acute care. Patients of all ages are seen 24 hours/day, 7 days/week.
There are a total of (45) rooms in the ED, which includes (5) barco-lounger spaces for lower acuity patients. The Emergency Department is divided into four major zones.
There are two distinct waiting areas, one for pediatric patients and their families, and the other for all other visitors. There are seven negative flow rooms, one of which is also an isolation room. Clinical and clerical workstations, nutrition areas, and supply and pharmaceutical dispensing machines are centrally located in each zone. A dedicated radiology suite, including CT, a DECON suite with a separate entrance, and a satellite lab are also situated in the Emergency Department.
Each ambulatory patient is initially evaluated at the triage are patients arriving via EMS are directed to the appropriate patient care room by the charge nurse. Acute psychiatric services are referred to the Psychiatric Crisis Unit at the Capital District
Psychiatric Center. Acute burn patients may be transferred to a burn center after stabilization.
Epilepsy Monitoring Unit
The Epilepsy Monitoring Unit (EMU) is an inpatient unit designed to provide comprehensive services to a specialized group of adult and pediatric patients with seizures who require complex monitoring diagnostic procedures. Patients in this program will have continuous video electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring in conjunction with other studies such as physiological monitoring, anticonvulsant pharmacological studies, and neuropsychological testing. The goal of the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit is to ensure that patients receive comprehensive seizure evaluations and optimal seizure treatment and management with maximum safety. Patients are admitted from home and are on the Neurology Service during their stay in the EMU.
General Orthopedics - C5
The C5 team members care for adult and geriatric patients having orthopedic or plastic surgery, including patients requiring flaps/free flaps and skin grafts. In addition they care for patients with wound infections, surgical or non-surgical, and with spine pathology and spinal cord injuries.
The General Pediatric Inpatient Service provides comprehensive, specialized care for hospitalized pediatric patients requiring Medical/Surgical Services ages 0-21. The unit consists of 26 beds with 1 exam/treatment room, 4 private and 11 semi-private rooms. There is 1 negative/positive room and 3 other positive pressure only rooms.
General Surgery – Short Stay - C2
The General Surgery and Short Stay Unit consists of 22 beds with 8 private rooms, 7 semi-private rooms and 1 exam room. The patient population served includes male and female surgical patients with a diagnosis requiring surgical intervention. The patient may require telemetry monitoring. The age of the patients ranges between 18 and 90+ with the majority of the patients 45-65. Major conditions/most frequent diagnoses treated are digestive procedures, including but not limited to colostomy, ileostomy, colectomy, cholecystectomy and 23 hour short stay surgical patients from a variety of specialties.
The department can provide telemetry for all patients.The patient population consists of both male and female adult patients. The ages range from young adult (18 years) to geriatric (100 years). In addition to our acute trauma population, and a high telemetry step down unit; this department provides care to patients having major surgical procedures. Primarily these surgical procedures include complicated pancreatic surgical procedures, general surgical, urological, ENT, and trauma related injury.
The department also serves the population of patients having the gastric bypass procedure and is a Level 1A Center of Excellence for Gastric Bypass Surgery through the American College of Surgeons. The Intermediate Care Unit provides an intermediate level of care for patients who are acutely ill and require focused observation, and high level telemetry monitoring for those patients with Trauma, General Surgery, Urological, or ENT procedures or conditions.
The inpatient unit of the AIDS Program is located on the fourth floor of the C Building. The maximum capacity is 25 patients. All rooms are private with separate showers and bathrooms. Rooms 1-12 and 14-26 are equipped with negative airflow, making them suitable for patients with communicable diseases. Room C416 is the patient lounge.
All rooms are equipped to monitor patients on telemetry. Patients are monitored on D2 by telemetry technicians. Unique accommodations are facilitated to provide visitor overnight stays, religious and cultural needs as requested within the unit’s ability.
The inpatient AIDS Program/Medical Unit is an interdisciplinary specialty unit. Patients may be acutely, chronically or terminally ill. The primary disease focus is HIV/AIDS. Patients that are admitted to the ID service or patients requiring any type of isolation that can not be maintained on other units as well as any adult general medical patient who does not require a specialty unit may be admitted to C4.
The Secure Unit is located on the third floor of the C Building, west wing. It is a secured prison model with locked secure doors at the entrance/exit. The maximum capacity is 10 patients. All rooms are private with separate showers and bathrooms with the exception of rooms C316 and C317 which share a common shower/bathroom which is large, accommodating special needs equipment. All rooms are equipped with negative airflow, making them suitable for patients with communicable diseases. All rooms are equipped to monitor patients on telemetry. Patients are monitored on D2 by telemetry technicians. Unique accommodations are facilitated to provide religious and cultural needs as requested within the unit’s ability.
The Secure Unit is an interdisciplinary unit. Patients may be acutely, chronically or terminally ill and are guarded on the unit on a 24x7 basis by the NYS Department of Corrections and/or Albany County. Inmates from the New York State Department of Corrections that do not require intensive care management are housed on C3W. Albany County Inmates may also be housed on C3W in accordance with the Albany County Jail Memorandum of Understanding (MOU).
This 30 bed Intensive Care Unit has both Surgical, Trauma and Neuroscience critically ill patients. This fast paced ICU has high acuity patients who require nurses with strong critical thinking skills and who also have the ability to collaborate well with multidisciplinary teams. Albany Medical Center is a Regional Level 1 Trauma Center recognized in 2012 for the largest volume of trauma patients and best outcomes in NYS. Our Neuroscience patients have state of the art equipment including 5 ICU rooms hard wired for continuous EEG technology along with advanced intracranial pressure monitoring equipment. Our innovative technology focuses on Patient- Family Centered Care.
*Medical /Surgical Intensive Care Unit (Med/Surg ICU) - D3E
The unit consists of 17 private beds/rooms. The patient population served includes acute and chronically ill patients, 18 years of age or older, with a variety of medical/surgical diagnoses.
Nursing care will focus on care requirements that involve a higher frequency of surveillance, assessment and intervention than can be provided on a general medical surgical unit, with a nurse/patient ratio of 1:3.
Critical Care Support Service: This group of experienced RNs (includes both the STAT RNs and Critical Care Float Pool) demonstrate clinical expertise, leadership, and problem solving for patients requiring or at risk for critical care services. Staff participates in self scheduling to provide adequate coverage responsibility to meet patient care and unit needs.
The adult STAT RNs respond to all Code emergencies, particularly Rapid Response and Code Blue calls. These RNs also assist in many other patient care activities, such as conducting Mock codes, teaching BLS and ACLS, and triaging patient transport requests to other facilities that require an RN presence during transport.
The Critical Care Float Pool staff are RNs who have demonstrated clinical expertise in Adult Critical Care, and float between 6 adult ICUs, and other areas where ICU patients may require service. Ability to transport patients is also required as needed.
Obstetrical patients over 16 week’s gestation presenting themselves to the Emergency Department shall be escorted to the Delivery Room for examination and treatment except when special resources or facilities are necessary for patient care.
Gynecological and low risk female surgical patients may be admitted to the Birthplace in accordance with the Rules and Regulations of the New York State Department of Health Section 405.
Newborns admitted to the Nursery shall be greater than or equal to 35 weeks gestation, free from contagious diseases, (i.e. pneumonia, diarrhea, infectious skin lesions), weight greater than or equal to 2000 grams, and able to feed effectively.
Medical Cardiology - D4N
The Medical Cardiology unit is a thirty-- bed unit consisting of thirteen (13) semi-private rooms and one four- (4) bed room on D4N There are no exam rooms on the unit. Patients are received from the Emergency Department, Cardiac Catheterization Lab, physician offices, and other facilities.
The patient population served includes male and female, acute and chronically ill patients with a variety of cardiac and medical diagnoses. Most patients admitted to the unit require telemetry monitoring. The age range is from young adult (18 years) to geriatric (100+) years.
Medical/Surgical Float Pool
Medical/Surgical Float Pool Registered Nurses float to all adult areas in the hospital except OR, PACU and ICU areas. Our nurses attain the skills and knowledge necessary to care for patients in almost any setting by caring for a wide variety of adult patients. They require the flexibility to assist with the assignment changes that occur often within any given shift.
Orientation is provided to all units. The unit-based orientation takes approximately 16 weeks to complete. After six months, there is a 4 week orientation to the ED so that they may care for admitted patients and low acuity ED patients.
This unit also includes added Cardiac education and the staff becomes ACLS certified. We hire into E/N positions with Full-time (40 hr/week) or Part-time (36 hr/week) options. We welcome new grads who will be a good fit for our team. Five of the most important factors to thrive in this position are:
Medical-Surgical Unit - E3
The unit consists of 26 beds, operating at 20 with the capacity for 6 semi-private rooms (12 beds) with capacity to go to 14, 6 private rooms, with capacity to go to 8 beds, and a 2 bed multi-patient room with capacity to go to 4 beds.
The patient population served includes acute and chronically ill patients with a variety of medical/surgical diagnosis. The age of the patients served ranges between 18 years of age and older with the majority of patients between 45 and 85.
The primary disease focus includes but is not limited to patients with gastrointestinal, infectious processes, metabolic disorders, and general medical & surgical diagnoses including but not limited to hematologic disorders, infectious disease processes, psychiatric diagnoses, orthopaedics, poly-substance abuse, acute and chronic pain management, short stay/uncomplicated surgical cases, end-stage organ failure and end of life therapies and management.
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) - B4
The NICU is located on B4 and consists of 46 single and 5 double occupancy rooms. The NICU is designed to provide specialized care for the neonate with comprehensive medical, nursing and family needs. It is a component of the Level IV Regional Perinatal Center. The population of the unit consists of acutely ill premature and full term infants. The NICU has a Family suite with kitchen lounge, laundry facilities and three family transition rooms for overnight stays.
Neurosciences General Unit - M5
The Neurosciences Unit- General is a 22 bed unit located on M5. The unit consists of 2 private rooms and 10 semi-private rooms. The patient population served are both male and female ages 18 years and older with neurological and neurosurgical conditions. We treat patients with primary diagnoses of stroke (ischemic and hemorrhagic), brain tumors, aneurysms - that may require surgical intervention and/or endovascular intervention, traumatic brain injury , seizure disorders, and movement disorders. The patients we serve are primarily neurological but the care is not limited to this patient population.
The Operating Room is comprised of 20 state-of-the-art operating suites with the most advanced robotic technology and specialty rooms for cardiac, neurology, urology, vascular and pediatric patients. A hybrid operating suite combines minimally invasive and interventional surgical techniques. The suite includes 3D and rotational CT imaging. There is also a two-room intraoperative CT suite for highly complex spine and brain surgery.
The General Pediatric Inpatient Service provides comprehensive, specialized care for hospitalized pediatric patients requiring Medical/Surgical Services ages 0-21.
C7 Pediatrics consists of (18) beds, (2) private and (8) semi-private rooms, Inclusive of (4) monitored beds.
Pre and Post-Operative Care Units (PACU) (POCU) - BB
The two state-of-the-art units consist of 22 adult and pediatric pre-operative spaces for before surgery and 26 post-anesthesia spaces for recovery after surgery. There is a shared waiting area for family and friends.
Psychiatry Unit - E2
E2 is a 26 bed acute psychiatric unit serving patients ages 18-93 with a primary psychiatric diagnosis of a major mood disorder, or a type of psychotic process. An interdisciplinary treatment team provides interventions. There are also milieu management, individual, group and family interventions. This psychiatric unit has two treatment teams consisting of an attending physician a 4th year resident and 1st and /or 2nd year resident, social worker, psychologist, nurses, recreational therapists and mental health assistants. The types of groups provided are again multidisciplinary in nature. Nursing groups include relapse prevention, medication education, diagnosis groups, process groups and health education groups. Other groups include: depression management, community meetings, exercise groups, leisure groups, journaling groups, healthy lifestyle groups, pet therapy, and music therapy. Each week family members are offered a Family Support Meeting with the intention to explore their adjustment to a family member's illness and ways to support the prevention of relapse and or to identify early signs and symptoms indicating their family member may be in need of greater
Pulmonary, Renal and General Medical Unit - M4
The Pulmonary, Renal and General Medical Unit is located on M4. It is a thirty-bed unit consisting of semi and private rooms. There are eleven semi-private rooms, four private rooms and four beds that are equipped to care for chronic, stable ventilator patients. The population served includes male and female, acute and chronically ill patients with a variety of medical/surgical diagnoses. The primary disease focus includes patients with pulmonary, renal and general medical diagnoses. The age of the patients ranges between 16 and 90+ with the majority of patients between 45 and 65.
Renal-Pulmonary Unit - E5
E5 provides comprehensive, patient and family centered care to general medical/surgical adult and geriatric patients with specialties including Cystic Fibrosis, Eating Disorders, Renal Disease, Diabetic Keto Acidosis (DKA), Pulmonary Disease (including, but not limited to, stable mechanically ventilated patients and tracheostomy patients), and I-131 Isotope patients. The RPN coordinates the interdisciplinary plan of care and collaborates with members of the health care team to achieve positive outcomes using quality improvement activities and evidence-based standards of care.
Renal/Pancreas Transplant Unit - C3E
The, Renal/Pancreas Transplant Unit, C3E, is located on the third floor of the C Building. The unit consists of 7 private rooms, one semi-private, and one 3 bed room. Our maximum patient census is 14 patients.
The age range is from adolescent to older adult. Age specific needs are assessed and considered in the plan of care throughout the length of stay. Primary diagnoses of the unit include pre and post-operative surgical patients with a focus on the renal transplant patient, simultaneous pancreas/kidney (SPK) transplant patient patients with End Stage Renal Disease requiring access for renal replacement therapy and patients requiring telemetry monitoring. Although all patients experiencing surgery have special needs, the renal transplant and SPK patient require extensive education on self-care measures that are necessary to maintain the health of both the patient and the transplanted graft(s). This unit also provides care to general medicine and surgical patients.
The general level of acuity is both acute and chronic, with the most common diagnoses including: Renal Transplant, Complications of Renal Transplant, Parathyroidectomy, Simultaneous Renal/Pancreas Transplant, DKA in Med./Surg., Live Donor Nephrectomy, and Hemodialysis Access. Treatment modalities include, but are not limited to IV therapy, antibiotic therapy, blood and blood products transfusion, sterile dressings, tube feeding, surgical drains, peritoneal dialysis and immunosuppressive therapy for renal transplant recipients.
The Operating Room at South Clinical Campus has 8 surgical suites and one surgical local anesthesia procedure room; they are designed to provide an optimal environment for the performance of surgical procedures. The patient population served consists of males and females, ranging in age from 3 months to the elder adult.
The Post Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) is a specialized critical care area designed to provide care to patients recovering from an anesthetic. Our patient population ranges from 3 months of age to the elder adult and consists of seven (7) patient care areas. The PACU provides intensive care in the immediate post-anesthetic period.
The pre-operative Unit consists of 10 patient stations, The post-operative Unit consist of 11 patient stations and 2 private rooms; 1 Laser room ; 1 Chart Review Room, and a Post-op step down with 6 patient stations. The patient population served includes male and female, infant to 90+ years, both acute and chronically ill surgical patients. The primary focus includes a full range of outpatient and short stay surgical care.
The Extended Care Monitoring Unit consists of 4 private and 10 semi-private rooms. The patient population served includes make and female, infant to 90+ years, both acute and chronically ill surgical patients. The primary focus includes patients who require a full range of outpatient and short-stay surgical care. Exclusion criteria are determined by the Anesthesia Department during chart review and by the admitting physician.
Pre-Surgical Testing consists of two (2) interview rooms, two (2) interview/exam rooms and one (1) central office. The patient population served includes male and female patients aged infant to 90+ years, both acute and chronically ill surgical patients. The primary focus includes patients who require a full range of outpatient and short stay surgical care. The majority of the patients are scheduled for a PST (pre-surgical test) nursing interview via phone prior to surgery. Some physicians require their patients to come in to the hospital for a Pre-Surgical Interview in person. The RN obtains a medical history, documents any special needs and appropriate teaching is initiated. The RN coordinates the care of these patients in collaboration with Physicians, Physician Assistants, Social Worker, OR Scheduler, Admitting, and Pharmacy.
Vascular Surgery - D5N
The unit consists of 25 beds with 5 private rooms, one 4-bed room and 8 semi-private rooms. The patient population served includes male and female both acute and chronically ill surgical patients. The primary disease focus includes patients with vascular disease, and surgical patient requiring telemetry monitoring. The age of the patients ranges between 18 and 90+ with the majority of the patients 45-65.
Plans of care in use include but are not limited to:
Vascular Intensive Care Unit
The Vascular ICU (VICU) at Albany Medical Center is a 4 bed intensive care unit. The patient population is adult/older adult (age 18 and older). Most patients are between 40-90 years old. The unit is designed to provide post-operative vascular, thoracic and cardiac surgery adult patients with continuous comprehensive specialized medical and nursing care. Any patient requiring critical care may be cared for in the VICU.
The Vascular ICU is designed to provide immediate post-operative care to patients recovering from major vascular surgery, as well as thoracic and cardiac surgery. The
VICU patients’ needs encompass comprehensive physical assessment, monitoring and treatment of laboratory values, ventilator management, hemodynamic monitoring (including arterial and PA catheters), titration of vasoactive and inotropic drug infusions, interpretation and treatment of cardiac rhythms, management of external pacemakers, continuous renal replacement therapy, therapeutic hypothermia, and intra-aortic balloon pumps.