Albany Medical Center
 Search
Home / Caring / Educating / Discovering / Find a Doctor / News / Give Now / Careers / About / Calendar / Directions / Contact
Viewing by month: May 2013
May 7, 2013 | Posted By Bruce D. White, DO, JD

The FDA has banned generic availability of the original formulation of OxyContin® (Purdue Pharma LP’s brand of oral controlled-release oxycodone). OxyContin® was approved by the FDA in 1995 and was first marketed in the US in 1996. Within a very short time, OxyContin® was the most frequently prescribed brand name analgesic with annual sales in the billions of dollars. By 2005 retail purchases were six times the 1997 volume; by 2008, sales totaled $2.5 billion.

Purdue was very effective in marketing OxyContin®. The manufacturer used several “sales strategies” that have since been roundly criticized by regulators and some physicians: aggressive off-label detailing; technically misbranding the product so as to mislead prescribers and patients regarding abuse potential; applying “significant political pressure” to gain state Medicaid formulary approvals; and engaging nationally recognized pain management thought leaders which “encouraged more liberal prescribing of opioids, based on debatable evidence.” With the increased prescribing, more of the drug was available for potential diversion to illegitimate channels. Not surprisingly, the number of accidental deaths from opioid drugs – licit and illicit – have grown in just a few years into a national crisis of epidemic proportions.

The Alden March Bioethics Institute offers a Master of Science in Bioethics, a Doctorate of Professional Studies in Bioethics, and Graduate Certificates in Clinical Ethics and Clinical Ethics Consultation. For more information on AMBI's online graduate programs, please visit our website.

May 2, 2013 | Posted By John Kaplan, PhD

During a week in which there were a series of tragic events I have selected to write about a scientific discovery that caught my interest.  This news story described the findings published in Science Magazine by a consortium of planetary scientists announcing the discovery of a planetary system of five planets orbiting the star designated Kepler-62. Kepler-62 is 1,200 light years away from Earth, a considerable distance. This discovery follows on the heels of a recent report in the Astrophysical Journal of a similar planetary system orbiting Kepler-69, an earth-sized star 2,700 light years from Earth. I find this to be really fascinating stuff. What makes this so fascinating is that these planetary systems include multiple planets in so-called “habitable zone”, a region appropriate in distance from the corresponding star which would permit water to exist in liquid form. 

You might ask why I would write about this in a bioethics blog. How is this possibly related to bioethics? The answer, to me, is that these planets may meet the criteria to support life. Indeed they may meet the conditions to support life as we know it. Thus I am suggesting that our conceptualization of the existence of life on these planets, the impact of such conceptualization upon us, and our ability to relate to the possibility of life in our universe beyond Earth puts this adequately within the realm of bioethics to fit in this blog. 

The Alden March Bioethics Institute offers a Master of Science in Bioethics, a Doctorate of Professional Studies in Bioethics, and Graduate Certificates in Clinical Ethics and Clinical Ethics Consultation. For more information on AMBI's online graduate programs, please visit our website.

May 1, 2013 | Posted By Paul Burcher, MD, PhD

When Beauchamp and Childress wrote their first edition of Principles of Biomedical Ethics, Immanuel Kant figured prominently in their discussion of the principle of autonomy.  Now he warrants barely a mention in the same, much revised chapter of the sixth edition.  Why the substantial de-emphasizing of Kant’s philosophy, when he wrote such important ethical treatises in which the human ability to make free and autonomous choice is so central?  Isn’t his philosophy the basis for our biomedical principle of autonomy?  The surprising answer is no, it cannot be. One reason is that Kant’s philosophical use of the principle of autonomy is actually quite different than the biomedical principle.  The other answer is that Kant’s principle does not provide a philosophical justification for the protection of patient’s rights.  I will explain both of these perhaps surprising claims.  But I do believe there is still a role for Kantian autonomy in the discipline of bioethics:  it remains a valid criterion (or yardstick) for when physicians should accede to patient requests for treatment.

Autonomous choice for Kant is ethical choice.  When we choose a course of action because it is consistent with the Categorical Imperative, we are choosing autonomously because we are freely choosing to obey an ethical law rather than being a slave to our passions and desires—we are not being pushed along by the world, we are initiating a new action for reasons that are somewhat “otherworldly” because they are neither empirical nor material, the ethical law is a priori and therefore “above the fray”.  But patients choose a course of action in healthcare for many reasons, and most of these reasons are amoral, and some may even violate Kant’s Categorical Imperative, such as refusing treatment for a non-terminal condition.  Kant saw any “suicide” as a violation of the second statement of the Categorical Imperative because human life must never be treated as a means to an end, and suicide abandons life for some reason (intractable pain, depression, despair), thereby treating it as a means, not an end in itself.  The point of this is that most decisions in a healthcare setting do not qualify as autonomous under Kant’s framework, because they are not ethical decisions in a strict sense.  They are done for personal reasons, which need not conform to moral law.

The Alden March Bioethics Institute offers a Master of Science in Bioethics, a Doctorate of Professional Studies in Bioethics, and Graduate Certificates in Clinical Ethics and Clinical Ethics Consultation. For more information on AMBI's online graduate programs, please visit our website.

SEARCH BIOETHICS TODAY
SUBSCRIBE TO BIOETHICS TODAY
ABOUT BIOETHICS TODAY
BIOETHICS TODAY is the blog of the Alden March Bioethics Institute, presenting topical and timely commentary on issues, trends, and breaking news in the broad arena of bioethics. BIOETHICS TODAY presents interviews, opinion pieces, and ongoing articles on health care policy, end-of-life decision making, emerging issues in genetics and genomics, procreative liberty and reproductive health, ethics in clinical trials, medicine and the media, distributive justice and health care delivery in developing nations, and the intersection of environmental conservation and bioethics.
TOPICS