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Viewing by month: December 2012
December 27, 2012 | Posted By Bruce D. White, DO, JD

In 2012, the percentage of money spent on providing drugs to patients in the United States continued to rise (Hoffman et al., 2012). However, this is a US trend not seen in other developing countries – such as Canada – where national drug expenditure percentages are slowing year after year (CBC News, 2012). In fact, in Canada, the rate of drug cost growth for this year is the lowest of the last 15 years. 

So, why? Simply put, the American pharmaceutical industry has fueled new drug innovation worldwide for decades. Now, the pharmaceutical companies have less money for research and development and are innovating less. When they do innovate, the companies spend their R&D allocations either on “me too” (imitation) drugs, or very, very expensive drugs for which insurance reimbursement is maximized. Market forces drive both these new drug lines. But now, the R&D well is clearly drying up (Adams, 2011).

The Alden March Bioethics Institute offers a Master of Science in Bioethics, a Doctorate of Professional Studies in Bioethics, and Graduate Certificates in Clinical Ethics and Clinical Ethics Consultation. For more information on AMBI's online graduate programs, please visit our website.

December 26, 2012 | Posted By Lisa Campo-Engelstein, PhD

As I have written about before in this blog, although I fully support the requirement that insurance companies cover contraceptives without a co-pay, this new law will not solve many of the social and gender inequalities in the reproductive realm. In a previous blog, I discussed how this law conflates reproduction with women and ignores men. Here I want point out how there remains a social perception that women cannot be trusted with contraception and enumerate five factors that contribute to this perception. 

First is the high rate of unintended pregnancies—almost half of all pregnancies in the U.S. are unintended. According to some calculations, a woman can expect to have 1.42 unintended pregnancies by the time she reaches 45. Despite our recognition that no form of contraception is 100% effective, the existence of so many unintended pregnancies leads us to question women’s competence with contraception. 

The Alden March Bioethics Institute offers a Master of Science in Bioethics, a Doctorate of Professional Studies in Bioethics, and Graduate Certificates in Clinical Ethics and Clinical Ethics Consultation. For more information on AMBI's online graduate programs, please visit our website.

December 20, 2012 | Posted By Zubin Master, PhD

Last month, I discussed a research integrity case making international headlines of an iPS cell study conducted by a researcher Hisashi Moriguchi who had allegedly falsified or fabricated data, provided false institutional affiliation, plagiarized work, and had questionable publication practices. In this post, I want to outline a few of the lessons we can learn from this case.

I think Péter Kakuk said it best when he wrote that the Hwang cloning scandal “might shed light on the often neglected benefits of the 'social control of science'".  As a trained scientist, I can say that I used to believe that many of the safeguards felt more like impediments to research progress. As a bioethics researcher, I still feel there are kinks in the system of ethical oversight and there is evidence to support this view. However, I also believe that the ethical safeguards are in place to promote the responsible conduct of research and ensure that research is performed by upholding the utmost standards of integrity. In every issue of Nature or Science there is some report of research misconduct or misbehavior. There have been studies done in the US and many other nations about the frequency of misconduct. Yet despite such reports, I feel many scientists still believe there are too many research hurdles only to catch a few bad apples. This view needs to shift.

The Alden March Bioethics Institute offers a Master of Science in Bioethics, a Doctorate of Professional Studies in Bioethics, and Graduate Certificates in Clinical Ethics and Clinical Ethics Consultation. For more information on AMBI's online graduate programs, please visit our website.

December 12, 2012 | Posted By Wayne Shelton, PhD

Recently, I attended a debate between two very informed health care professionals about whether or not our country should have a single payer health care system. Each seemed to have their own philosophical or ideological perspective about health care as a basic service in our society and it through their ideological lens that each speaker viewed health care and brought to bear the facts to support their positions. It was striking that these two very informed and thoughtful individuals often disagreed about fundamental facts pertaining to our health care system. 

For example, the opponent of a single payer system supported his claim that turning over health care to the federal government would be a failure at least in part on the assumption government is incompetent to perform this task. He claimed, as other thoughtful conservatives do, that that Medicare and Medicaid are less efficient than private health plans. If the analysis in the first link below, which is part of the Ryan Plan, is true, then perhaps there are some facts to support their case.

The Alden March Bioethics Institute offers a Master of Science in Bioethics, a Doctorate of Professional Studies in Bioethics, and Graduate Certificates in Clinical Ethics and Clinical Ethics Consultation. For more information on AMBI's online graduate programs, please visit ourwebsite.

December 11, 2012 | Posted By Ricki Lewis, PhD

For 15 years, the film GATTACA has been synonymous with “genetic dystopian future,” and has become a mainstay of genetics classrooms. But I’ve found a better film. It’s called, simply, Jim.

“Jim” is a terrific glimpse of a frightening future from Jeremy Morris-Burke, a self-taught filmmaker.

I never could quite connect with GATTACA, the dark tale of an assumed genetic identity in a society where the quality of one’s genome dictates everything. Perhaps it was because 1997 was the pre-genome era, when the idea of ordering a DNA test over the Internet was still science fiction. But ironically GATTACA’s “not-too-distant” future, in which a genetically inferior “invalid” impersonates a “valid” to achieve a dream, sets up a too-obvious conflict, with the details and resolution contrived. I know this from years of reading fiction and watching soap operas.

Although Jim, released in late 2010, shares with GATTACA the premise of widespread genetic enhancement, it’s much more subtle and nuanced.

“Jim” is a terrific glimpse of a frightening future
from Jeremy Morris-Burke, a self-taught filmmaker.

The Alden March Bioethics Institute offers a Master of Science in Bioethics, a Doctorate of Professional Studies in Bioethics, and Graduate Certificates in Clinical Ethics and Clinical Ethics Consultation. For more information on AMBI's online graduate programs, please visit our website.

December 10, 2012 | Posted By Jane Jankowski, LMSW, MS

Over the last thirty years or so, eating disorders have received increased attention both clinically and in the mainstream media. The apparent surge in diagnosing eating disorders has long been blamed on unrealistic social pressures, media representations equating body type and attractiveness, however, the effect on males has gone largely unnoticed until recently. A paper published in the journal Eating Disorders in 2012 offers some useful insight into the problematic gender disparities for men who have eating disorders. 

In the paper “Eating Disorders in Men: Underdiagnosed, Undertreated, and Misunderstood” by Strother, Lemberg, Stanford, and Turberville several issues that are unique to males with eating disorders. In order to address the issues specific to men, the authors propose several key topics which are notably relevant in these patients. First, understanding the patient’s weight history is presented because the research has indicated men who develop eating disorders were often overweight at one time in their life, unlike women with eating disorders who often have normal weight histories. Weight concerns for men are often associated with avoiding health problems experienced by their fathers or athletic achievement, unlike the goals of “achieving thinness” in females.

December 7, 2012 | Posted By John Kaplan, PhD

Throughout history there has been persecution of scientists and physicians. In some of the most notable historic cases persecution has been lead by powerful institutions including both church and government and has resulted in prosecution, conviction and punishment.  The current prosecution of earthquake scientists underway in Italy seems to be an example of the worst sort of persecution and is indeed reminiscent of the types of unjust attacks by frustrated and wrong-headed government officials looking for scapegoats when there are none. The serious implications of this prosecution have intensified with the conviction of these scientists.

There seems to have been a great diversity in the basis for such persecution and these current events give us opportunity to review the reasons. I acknowledge the previous reviews and commentaries on this subject for having compiled much of the information.

The Alden March Bioethics Institute offers a Master of Science in Bioethics, a Doctorate of Professional Studies in Bioethics, and Graduate Certificates in Clinical Ethics and Clinical Ethics Consultation. For more information on AMBI's online graduate programs, please visit our website.

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BIOETHICS TODAY is the blog of the Alden March Bioethics Institute, presenting topical and timely commentary on issues, trends, and breaking news in the broad arena of bioethics. BIOETHICS TODAY presents interviews, opinion pieces, and ongoing articles on health care policy, end-of-life decision making, emerging issues in genetics and genomics, procreative liberty and reproductive health, ethics in clinical trials, medicine and the media, distributive justice and health care delivery in developing nations, and the intersection of environmental conservation and bioethics.
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