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Topic: Public Trust
December 4, 2014 | Posted By John Kaplan, PhD

You may remember a movie, now twenty five years old in which two apparently unintelligent teens (Ted and Bill) use a time machine to prepare a history assignment. In this movie it appears that things may not turn out so well but a being from the future comes to help them out and save the world. The movie is, of course, fiction and a farce. It very much appears that we are, in a sense, reliving this sort of excellent adventure with an important difference. It appears to be a farce but unfortunately it is not fiction. It is also not likely to be excellent.

In January the 113th Congress of the United States of America will be convened with Republican majorities in both the Senate and House of Representatives. In this new congress Senator James Mountain Inhofe, Republican from Oklahoma will almost certainly become Chair of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee. The Senate Environment and Public Works Committeehas oversight of pollution and those environmental issues which impact public works including highways and power plants. 

The Alden March Bioethics Institute offers a Master of Science in Bioethics, a Doctorate of Professional Studies in Bioethics, and Graduate Certificates in Clinical Ethics and Clinical Ethics Consultation. For more information on AMBI's online graduate programs, please visit our website. 

October 30, 2014 | Posted By Thomas Andersen, PhD

Implementation of medical quarantines in America brings into conflict various legitimate arguments regarding who, if anyone, should have the authority to restrict movements of citizens.  Quarantines are not new, but they exist now in a world with new dangers and new opportunities for abuse.

In teaching medical students in recent years, it became apparent that many students found the concept of a home quarantine to be abhorrent.  Many were aghast at the concept that a patient could be restricted from daily activities, and found it an egregious violation of civil liberties and ethical conduct.  Interestingly, these views were often not mitigated substantially when students were informed that, in former days, quarantines were fairly common in this country and elsewhere.  In a world before the Internet in which home confinement was really quite restrictive, medical quarantines for diseases such as small pox, tuberculosis, or even measles were not uncommon. Such quarantines were usually imposed by a local health official.  In addition, many families self-quarantined, or at least avoided exposure to potential sources of disease. For example, some people used to avoid many summer activities for fear of contracting polio.  Due largely to the development of vaccination, many of the diseases that would have invoked a quarantine in earlier years are no longer of concern, and the concept of quarantine has become a bit anachronistic, even in a world that offers many portals that would seemingly make confinement less onerous.  But the topic of quarantine requires renewed consideration in the world of today.

The Alden March Bioethics Institute offers a Master of Science in Bioethics, a Doctorate of Professional Studies in Bioethics, and Graduate Certificates in Clinical Ethics and Clinical Ethics Consultation. For more information on AMBI's online graduate programs, please visit our website.

January 27, 2014 | Posted By Michael McNichol and Zubin Master, PhD

Since the discovery of human embryonic stem cells in 1998, many promises have been made by individuals and groups about the potential of stem cell research to revolutionize the practice of regenerative medicine. Yet to date, very little has been seen in terms of novel therapies in the clinic. Because of the substantive economic investments made in stem cell research in order to realize the promise they can offer, greater efforts to translate stem cell research into medicines has ensued. However, many factors might impede the clinical translation of stem cell research. In this blog, we briefly highlight the ethical and scientific issues surrounding the successful translation and commercialization of stem cell research.

The process of clinical translation begins with preclinical research using in vitro systems and animal models to show proof-of-principle and demonstrate safety and efficacy of a potential therapeutic. For example, if a stem cell is to be transplanted into a patient to treat a degenerative disease, then the type of stem cell that is being used must show that it can successfully treat a similar disease in animals prior to testing the product in humans. There are many reasons for using appropriate animal models that mimic human diseases: low cost, reproductive cycle, number of offspring, genetic similarity, similarity in the manifestation of the disease in humans, and ease of handling. However, there are many limitations to animal models that do not result in direct translation in humans, meaning what may work in animals may not at the end of the day be effective in people. While we choose animals as models to mimic human disease, the biology of animals is still significantly different than humans and thus may simply not translate 100%. This issue is difficult to get around. 

The Alden March Bioethics Institute offers a Master of Science in Bioethics, a Doctorate of Professional Studies in Bioethics, and Graduate Certificates in Clinical Ethics and Clinical Ethics Consultation. For more information on AMBI's online graduate programs, please visit our website.

April 25, 2013 | Posted By Zubin Master, PhD

Several scholars claim that hyping different biotechnologies will lead to a loss of public trust which in turn will result in a loss of support for science. This has been discussed in the context of genomics research, gene therapy, stem cell research, biobanking, neuroimaging research, and nanotechnology. The problem most articulate is that hype in terms of promising medical benefits to the public will generate an expectation by the public and when such expectations are unmet, the public’s support for science will wane. Certainly there is social science evidence to support that (a) hype over many biotechnologies is present in the popular media and (b) several actors are involved in hyping science including scientists, media, politicians, and others. And while the idea that hype and unmet expectations could result in a loss of public trust and support for science seems logical and to some degree intuitive, I think the reality is that the relationship between hype, public trust, and the loss of support for science is quite complex. It is also complicated to measure empirically and to date, there is no study I have come across that demonstrates this relationship. In fact, the one study evaluating the public and donor’s perceptions on hype and stem cell research actually shows that people “aren’t taken in by media hype.”

The Alden March Bioethics Institute offers a Master of Science in Bioethics, a Doctorate of Professional Studies in Bioethics, and Graduate Certificates in Clinical Ethics and Clinical Ethics Consultation. For more information on AMBI's online graduate programs, please visit our website.

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BIOETHICS TODAY is the blog of the Alden March Bioethics Institute, presenting topical and timely commentary on issues, trends, and breaking news in the broad arena of bioethics. BIOETHICS TODAY presents interviews, opinion pieces, and ongoing articles on health care policy, end-of-life decision making, emerging issues in genetics and genomics, procreative liberty and reproductive health, ethics in clinical trials, medicine and the media, distributive justice and health care delivery in developing nations, and the intersection of environmental conservation and bioethics.
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