The modern era in the West marks the beginning of a new way of understanding the purpose of a social system and how people fit in to it. The transition to the modern world was from a medieval world that was perceived to have inherent ends and truths, based on Aristotelian metaphysics and Catholic moral theology, that provided authoritative answers to fundamental questions about the nature of ultimate reality, knowledge, human nature and morality. In Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries, the radical political turmoil, stemming from the Protestant Reformation, and a growing sense of the rights of humans were leading philosophers like Hobbes (1588-1679), Locke (1632-1704) and Rousseau (1712-1778) to articulate a fundamentally new type of social and political system. Instead of the divine rights of kings to assert complete rule over subjects, which created an obligation for subjects to obey those divine rights, there emerged the concept that the social and political order should be structured so as to protect and preserve the natural rights of human beings qua citizens. This new understanding of how to understand society and individuals—later called social contract theory—provided the conceptual underpinnings of the eventual emergence of democratic systems: The idea that the social system should be structured in a manner so as to allow individual citizens to be free to live according to their life goals and values within the limits of respecting those same rights of others. This meant that individual citizens should agree to give up some of their rights, e.g. to steal and kill, for the larger benefit of living safely and in a manner of one’s own choice.
The Alden March Bioethics Institute offers a Master of Science in Bioethics, a Doctorate of Professional Studies in Bioethics, and Graduate Certificates in Clinical Ethics and Clinical Ethics Consultation. For more information on AMBI's online graduate programs, please visit ourwebsite.