Much of the history of philosophy, including the history of philosophical ethics, can be summarized as the quest for a basis in an objective, rational truth. My sense is that many ethicists, both philosophers and non-philosophers, today have not let go of this quest entirely. The purpose of this short blog to is sketch briefly the philosophical landscape of our tradition and what I think is the proper response to it in terms of how we should view ethics.
Early Greek philosophers, such as Thales, Democritus, Parmenides and Heraclitus were seeking an understanding of the natural phenomena independent from traditional mythology. Their goal was to find an explanation that accounted for both diversity and change in nature, but also the unity and continuity. A basic question became, what is the ultimate source or the most basic element of the universe that helps us understand the universe, as well as what we know and how we should live? Plato, through his dialogues using Socrates as his mouthpiece, postulated that ultimate Truth or Good is to be found in the Forms, which were in a separate, higher realm from everyday human experience. For Plato, what we come to know in the realm of earthly experience is always an approximation of their ultimate counterparts in the Forms. Of course a special realm of truth requires a special understanding, which not surprisingly he believed was accessible only to the Philosopher King, whose understanding was oriented to such a level.
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