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May 4, 2015 | Posted By Bruce White, DO, JD

With the recent success of the blockbuster drug Sovaldi© (Gilead Sciences, Inc.), the manufacturer’s stock price has quintupled in the last four years. This supports the views of some that pharmaceutical prices in America should be subject to greater government scrutiny and controls like other industrialized countries.

High profits within the pharmaceutical industry are nothing new. “Historically [before the recent recession], the drug industry in America has been the top performing [sector] in terms of return on revenues (average 18.6%) and return on assets (average 17.7%) compared to 4.9% and 3.9% respectively for median companies in the Fortune 500 industries.” 

The extremely high costs of drug research and development (R&D) are often cited as the principal rationale for allowing an above average return and minimizing government price controls. However, studies have shown that “[as t]o the question of whether pharmaceutical drugs costs are justified by R&D, the answer is no. Pharmaceutical firms do indeed invest money in R&D, as do other production and service firms, but this investment does not account for their large ongoing profit, which ranges from 2.5 to 37 times the non-pharmaceutical industry average over time.”

The Alden March Bioethics Institute offers a Master of Science in Bioethics, a Doctorate of Professional Studies in Bioethics, and Graduate Certificates in Clinical Ethics and Clinical Ethics Consultation. For more information on AMBI's online graduate programs, please visit our website. 

April 24, 2015 | Posted By Jane Jankowski, DPS, LMSW

I am a lousy gardener. Just this year I am considering a small attempt at growing a few vegetables organically in my backyard. Maybe it was the long winter, maybe it is a drive to live more sustainably, maybe it is the challenge of overcoming decades of plant growing failures. After carefully selecting a few packets of easy to grow seeds and starting a few slow-growers inside, I have turned my attention to creating the best growing environment for these fragile plants. Part of this effort includes learning how to create compost from kitchen and yard waste materials. While I search for a suitable compost bin to take position behind the garage, I am diligently collecting fruit cores, egg shells, coffee grounds, and discarded greens in airtight containers in my fridge. Researching my options, I stumbled across an article that had me doing a double take, “A Project to Turn Corpses Into Compost” in the New York Times online. I gasped in horror. Could this possibly be an ethical option for burial? Could this be legal? Was this environmentally safe? Was this a joke?

The Alden March Bioethics Institute offers a Master of Science in Bioethics, a Doctorate of Professional Studies in Bioethics, and Graduate Certificates in Clinical Ethics and Clinical Ethics Consultation. For more information on AMBI's online graduate programs, please visit our website. 

April 20, 2015 | Posted By Lisa Campo-Engelstein, PhD
The concept of infertility seems relatively straightforward, yet there are many myths, confusions, and disagreements regarding who counts as being infertile. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), infertility is "a disease of the reproductive system defined by the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse.”Like many definitions of infertility, this one is based on a woman's body since she is the one who experiences pregnancy. However, this definition may make it more difficult to understand and recognize male factor infertility.Indeed, defining infertility based solely on a woman's ability to achieve pregnancy reinforces the myth that women are more likely to be infertile than men. In reality, women and men are equally likely to be infertile. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) definition of infertility is more inclusive: “the inability of a woman or man to conceive a child or the inability of a woman to carry a pregnancy to term.”

Another concerned with the WHO definition of infertility is that it is based on being in a heterosexual relationship.According to this definition and many others like it, people can only be considered infertile if they engage in "regular unprotected sexual intercourse." This definition does not explicitly state that this it is referring to heterosexual intercourse, which is problematic. Given the narrow scope of this definition, how then should we diagnose infertility in lesbian and gay couples and heterosexual individuals who are singleand not engaging in regular unprotected sexual intercourse.

The Alden March Bioethics Institute offers a Master of Science in Bioethics, a Doctorate of Professional Studies in Bioethics, and Graduate Certificates in Clinical Ethics and Clinical Ethics Consultation. For more information on AMBI's online graduate programs, please visit our website. 

April 16, 2015 | Posted By Maggie Kirby

We are always pleased to support the activities of young scholars who are interested in bioethics. This link is a timeline of the Supreme Court case Gonzales vs. Oregon. It was prepared by Ms. Maggie Kirby who attends high school at U-32 in Vermont. It does a terrific job of documenting this important bioethics case and binging awareness to the ongoing debate about physician-assisted suicide. Great work Maggie! 

The Alden March Bioethics Institute offers a Master of Science in Bioethics, a Doctorate of Professional Studies in Bioethics, and Graduate Certificates in Clinical Ethics and Clinical Ethics Consultation. For more information on AMBI's online graduate programs, please visit our website. 

April 14, 2015 | Posted By John Kaplan, PhD

Last week we posted an article to our Facebook page from the Washington Post entitled “We don’t need more STEM majors. We need more STEM majors with liberal arts training”.  

Reading this got me to thinking and a bit of reminiscing about my own education. Long before STEM meant science technology engineering and math I was a STEM major. I received my undergraduate degree from the University of Illinois in 1972 from the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. That is, I was a STEM major who received a liberal arts education. The replacement of the word “education” for “training” is intentional on my part as I value education far beyond training but I digress.  I focused on science to the greatest degree possible with a biology major and a chemistry/physics minor. But as a student in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences I was required to complete requirements which were satisfied by sequences in social sciences, humanities, foreign language, and rhetoric. I remember these experiences to varying degrees. Some are fond memories, some seemed more like torture. Collectively, however, I look back on these courses as a great well rounded and very rewarding educational experience. I do have every confidence that I benefited greatly from my non-STEM courses and they helped me with the skills and the experience to better communicate as a scientist and the non-scientific responsibilities I also had as a faculty member.

The Alden March Bioethics Institute offers a Master of Science in Bioethics, a Doctorate of Professional Studies in Bioethics, and Graduate Certificates in Clinical Ethics and Clinical Ethics Consultation. For more information on AMBI's online graduate programs, please visit our website. 

April 10, 2015 | Posted By Wayne Shelton, PhD

The history of America from the beginning was a struggle of opposing ideological perspectives over the role of the state’s power vis-à-vis the consciences of individual citizens. The 17th century Puritans in the Massachusetts Bay Colony basically transported to America the same kind of religious, state intrusion into the lives of individuals they were trying to escape in England by requiring citizens to subscribe to the official state religion. Fortunately, there were courageous individuals there at the time, like Roger Williams (1603-1683), who strongly resisted such requirements. Williams, prior to coming to America, had been educated at Cambridge and worked for Lord Chief Justice Edward Coke. (1552-1634)  Coke was the famous English jurist whose work provided much of the foundations of the Anglo-American legal system, and who famously “declared the king to be subject to the law, and the laws of Parliament to be void if in violation of "common right and reason”.  No doubt Williams’ prior education and influences from Coke, and from others like Francis Bacon (1561-1626) who taught him the way of learning through experiment and observation, helped temper his strong theological commitments in relation to his views about the proper relationship between the authority of the state and religion, and the extent to which the state could have control over the consciences of free individuals, what Williams called “soul liberty”. Williams himself did not have theological quarrels with the Puritans; however, he did not believe religious conviction could be coerced. It was on this moral and political basis, that Williams founded Rhode Island, the first state ever to have a constitution guaranteeing expansive freedom of conscience to individual citizens. Fortunately, the thinking of Williams became the mindset of the key founders, particularly Jefferson (1743-1826) and Madison (1751-1836), of the American constitutional system. (For a full account of Roger Williams’ life and influence, see the wonderful book, Roger Williams and the Creation of the American Soul: Church, State, and the Birth of Liberty by John M. Barry)

The Alden March Bioethics Institute offers a Master of Science in Bioethics, a Doctorate of Professional Studies in Bioethics, and Graduate Certificates in Clinical Ethics and Clinical Ethics Consultation. For more information on AMBI's online graduate programs, please visit our website. 

April 7, 2015 | Posted By Bruce D. White, DO, JD

On March 30, 2015, the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) House of Delegates – the group’s representative assembly – adopted a policy discouraging pharmacists from participating in executions. The APhA policy is only one sentence long: “The American Pharmacists Association discourages pharmacist participation in executions on the basis that such activities are fundamentally contrary to the role of pharmacists as providers of health care.”

In defending the new policy, APhA Executive Vice President and CEO, Thomas E. Menighan, BSPharm, MBA, ScD (Hon), FAPhA, stated, “Pharmacists are health care providers and pharmacist participation in executions conflicts with the profession’s role on the patient health care team. This new policy aligns the APhA with the execution policies of other major health care associations including the American Medical Association, the American Nurses Association, and the American Board of Anesthesiology.”

The Alden March Bioethics Institute offers a Master of Science in Bioethics, a Doctorate of Professional Studies in Bioethics, and Graduate Certificates in Clinical Ethics and Clinical Ethics Consultation. For more information on AMBI's online graduate programs, please visit our website. 

April 2, 2015 | Posted By John Kaplan, PhD

Peer review of scientific manuscripts has been around a long time. There are apparently plenty of people who think something is not quite right with peer review because they keep trying to change it. Specifically I am talking about the peer review of manuscripts for publication. I have addressed this subject periodically and new developments lead me to address this subject again.

One new development is so called fast-track peer review.  This type of review is being adopted by at least one journal of the prestigious Nature Publishing Group, Scientific Reports. The publisher has contracted with a private peer review company, Rubriq.  Authors submitting papers to Scientific Reports can opt to have their manuscript review fast tracked as long as they are willing to pay $750 to cover the costs. Rubriq in turn pays the peer reviewers $100 per manuscript to review the manuscript quickly. Imagine that, a faster publication, something every scientist aspires to is now available to those willing and able to pay more. This sounds disturbingly like a two-tiered system based on economic resources. I am also a bit jealous that I did not get paid to review all those manuscripts over the last forty years. The perverse component of this scheme is that it makes what was always a volunteer activity into one that now consumes limited research resources.

The Alden March Bioethics Institute offers a Master of Science in Bioethics, a Doctorate of Professional Studies in Bioethics, and Graduate Certificates in Clinical Ethics and Clinical Ethics Consultation. For more information on AMBI's online graduate programs, please visit our website. 

Previous Posts

March 26, 2015 | Posted By Zubin Master, PhD
March 10, 2015 | Posted By Jane Jankowski, DPS, LMSW
March 4, 2015 | Posted By Bruce White, DO, JD
February 26, 2015 | Posted By Zubin Master, PhD
February 17, 2015 | Posted By Lisa Campo-Engelstein, PhD
February 13, 2015 | Posted By Bruce White, DO, JD
February 11, 2015 | Posted By Jane Jankowski, DPS, LMSW
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BIOETHICS TODAY is the blog of the Alden March Bioethics Institute, presenting topical and timely commentary on issues, trends, and breaking news in the broad arena of bioethics. BIOETHICS TODAY presents interviews, opinion pieces, and ongoing articles on health care policy, end-of-life decision making, emerging issues in genetics and genomics, procreative liberty and reproductive health, ethics in clinical trials, medicine and the media, distributive justice and health care delivery in developing nations, and the intersection of environmental conservation and bioethics.
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